Roofers – Roofing Companies – Roofing Contractors – Roof Repairs – Chesapeake, VA – Norfolk, VA – Virginia Beach – Suffolk, Virginia – Portsmouth, VA – Hampton Roads – Newport News, VA

Roofing Company - Roofing Repairs

If you need the best of the best roofing services for an affordable price contact Aquashield Roofing. We offer quality roofing near Chesapeake, Virginia that you can trust. When hiring a roofing contractor you deserve only the best roofer for your new roof replacement of roof repair.

At Chesapeake, Virginia Roofing, we are proud to be top-of-the-line roofing contractors in this complete Chesapeake, Virginia area and we really love roofing repair or replacement projects in Norfolk, Virginia because that's our own backyard! We are the top choice when it comes to roofing contractors in Norfolk, Virginia and surround Norfolk, Virginia area.

We know there are various choices in relation to roofers, so you go beyond to make sure our clients are completely satisfied with these services. We service the entire Virginia Beach,

 


Virginia region.

Treat our client concerning
Provide only honest information always
Only do business with somebody who’s more comfortable with us
Ensure 100% satisfaction before ANY payment exchanges hands.

Virginia Beach, Virginia roofing offers a complete manufactured system instead of shingle and felt replacement. All components are installed to meet manufacture specifications of installation to steer clear of warranty issues. As your roofing contractors of choice at Virginia Beach Roofers, we be sure we finish the job right at first around.

We simply not only service the Suffolk, Virginia area, but in addition the encompassing areas. We sit up for being your roofing company in Virginia. We are the most beneficial roofing company in Suffolk, Virginia!

You should tell us some of the next so we can help you with just the thing you need…

Does your roof leak? Is it a maintenance issue? When was a final time you bought up on your roof to view what condition it was actually in? Do you have storm damage or is there a scam occurring? Are your gutters in desperate requirement for repair or replacement?

You’ll make the most uniquely qualified inspectors in all other carpet cleaners from Suffolk, Virginia Roofing. Allow us to help you in the way you need. Below is some important information you will have:

Have a difficult spot in the areas around your skylights or chimney that's resulting in leaks that are now staining your ceiling inside? No fear, Hampton, Virginia Roofing is here.

We will come out and do free of charge thorough inspection and troubleshoot all possible scenario's, provide you with a reasonable solution, present it to you personally in a no pressure/no hassle way that will leave you feeling 100% comfortable with our recommendation.

Our business thrives on referrals so we it can take the upmost care in giving you exactly the thing you need, no extra's, no up-charge situated on the surcharge or hidden fee's that surprise you later.

Hampton, Virginia Roofing wants you to be so pleased about our performance and repair at a good price that you will tell all of your friends.

We will only use the very best of quality materials in the repair of your damaged roof. No shortcuts or temporary bandaids. After we finish, the position will be accomplished right because we proudly follow the "measure twice cut once" adage.

Our wide variety of available roofing repair materials allows us to match almost perfectly the new shingles in the old. Hampton, Virginia Roofing Company little things is usually what sets us apart.

When we finish, we don't tell you to even notice any difference between that part of the roof that is what damaged and of course the newly repaired roof.

We have repaired numerous roofs in the Newport News, Virginia and Newport News region and sit up for adding that enable you to our collection of satisfied customers.

Thank goodness your family survived the huge storm that simply rolled through. Seems like the whole house neighborhood sustained terrible roof damage.

Certain, we know the way stressful this can be and are uniquely prepared to handled roof replacement surprisingly fast because at Newport News Roofing, we are local, rather than a fly-by-night storm chasing "roofing company" that's here today and vanishes tomorrow.

Our highly qualified crews of experienced roofers put a collective 84 a lot roof replacement skills in your disposal. You should have our undivided attention immediately through in this project.

We will present to you personally a few options that may all fit throughout your budget. We can even assist you in coping with the insurance firm to ensure you get the complete advantage of a policy you could have spent years paying into about such a moment as this.

Roofing replacements in Portsmouth, Virginia. Our quality materials and workmanship will skip only the a roof that you will be proud of. Moreover, we haul over the old roof and you'll not even see any trace all of us have actually being there when this task continues to be completed.

From tare down, roof replacement and departure, you will feel that you had been our number one priority, because the safety and protection of your property and family IS our number one concern.

We've replaced countless roofs in the Portsmouth, Virginia and surrounding areas and look ahead to adding you as our next door many satisfied customers.

Call us now to interchange your roof.

So you and the family survived the newest storm however your roof, well, it is need for some minor attention.

Off of the substituting missing shingle (matched perfectly to your current existing roof) to the site repair of damage sustained by a falling tree. Our crews are properly fit to handle all scenarios as it pertains to roofing repair.

Our dedicated crews are available out to right away inspect and provde the most competitive roofing repair quote within the Portsmouth, Virginia region.

That leak you simply noticed must be stopped now. There is no such thing as a time to waste as every day that you simply delay allows the water damage to spread throughout the entire underlayment in addition to to the penetration of one's ceilings inside leading to unsightly stains or worse, growing mold.

Call us immediately if you believe you studied your roof just recently sustained any damage from the latest severe weather. High winds, hails, and falling limbs can all contribute to the eroding no matter what the integrity of your respective roof. Time represents your enemy immediately, so the sooner you call, the earlier we are able to rectify and mitigate any damages.

Your roof protects your most valuable investment besides you and your loved ones. Don't risk delaying the minor repair given that if left unchecked, becomes a serious headache within the near future.

We have specially formed crews that deal mainly with emergency response and repair situations. Regardless residing in Hampton Roads, Virginia or any additional no matter the cities close to the Hampton Roads, Virginia region, we are going to be out in a hurry to take care of all of your roofing needs.

With many other roofing companies will come in the Hampton Roads, Virginia, Tidewater, Virginia area, what are the reasons you need to choose Tidewater, Virginia Roofing Company?

Our roofing repair or roofing replacement crews are second to none: If really wish an award when it comes to the most suitable, courteous, timely and qualified crews in the Tidewater, Virginia Roofing community, Chesapeake Roofing Co. would win hands down. We we boast of having a bowel movement beyond what is anticipated and most importantly, we deliver results. 100% guaranteed. Our word is our bond. And also if that may not be good enough, yep, we're fully bonded, licensed and insured in order that YOU can sure that YOU are in the best of hands.

We're professional: Our office staff, field superintendents and roofing crews all of us have the same characteristics; we care, we communicate politely, courteously, intelligently and along with your well bieng in mind. Roofers in Chesapeake, Virginia are fully aware there are many roofing repair and roofing replacement companies out in the Chesapeake, Virginia area and then we aim to set ourselves apart from the noise of the remaining by demonstrating consistently out the small things and professionalism on and away from the worksite.

Our roofing repair and roofing replacement crews do a great job: Our roofers only utilize the best of materials plus the highest quality of tools when it comes to the job. With safety being job one, you'll feel comfortable that our crews go that step further to ensure that they, your loved ones, neighbors and house with be protected as we work in a safe environment. Norfolk Roofing Co crews usually are not laborers, no, we believe them to be able to be fine craftsmen with vast experience creating beauty and safe roofing masterpieces.

Flexibility & Demand: We know about emergencies are never planned having to endure a roof repair or roof replacement is never something anyone willingly looks forward to undertaking. We have that you have a household and a stressful work schedule. Our cpr certified staff of roofers will meet and exceed the needs you have to have every work finished in a timely manner.

Affordable Pricing: At Aquashield Roofing Company we deal in volume roofing repair and roofing replacement. We don't try to be Jack's of every trades so we never just do siding or windows etc. No, we're masters of a thing you need and a thing you need only – is getting your roof returning to where you need it. Therefore, we are able to pass volume discounts on to you personally, our valued customer. We may also happily work along with your insurance adjuster along with you take into account, getting the most value for your dollars owed to YOU.

OUR GOAL IS YOUR ULTIMATE HAPPINESS

Norfolk, Virginia Roofing Co is centrally nestled in Norfolk, Virginia and we would like only to fulfill and exceed your every expectation with regards to having the roof repaired or replaced. We're here to aid you in many aspects of the cover repair or roof replacement process. We want you, our new or existing repeat satisfied customer to think that we deeply appreciate many aspects of this project. From estimating, repairing or replacing of one's roof as well as the handling of all the insurance claims. We want this technique to be as stress free as is possible and completed within a timely and satisfactory manner.

Our goal is to win you for being satisfied customer. You will note shortly that Virginia Beach Roofing takes our service for your requirements seriously. Every communication, inspection and work that is completed might be of the best of standards. We aim to please and look ahead to providing you with our professional roofing repair or roofing replacement service.

There are many roofing companies in Chesapeake, Virginia that will take advantage of a desperate homeowner. At Aquashield Roofing our Chesapeake roofers are honest and we never use any high pressure sales tactics.

When you need a roofing company in Chesapeake, VA that is honest and affordable contact Aquashield Roofing company. We are proud to serve thousands of homeowners across Hampton Roads. We offer roofing repair services and new roof replacements all around the city of Chesapeake, Virginia. We always provide free estimates.

Our services:

Roofing Repairs

Roof Leak Repairs

New Roof Replacements

New Roofing Installations

Residential Roofing Services

Commercial Roofing Services

Metal Roofing

Shingle Roofing

Flat Roofing Membranes

TPO Roofing Membranes

EPDM Rubber Roofing Membranes

Wood Shingles

Slate repairs

When you need a roofing contractor to take care of the roofing leaks on your home the last thing that you want is a big hassle and high pressure sales pitch. Call Aquashield Roofing Today!

Chesapeake, VA Roofers

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roofer or roof mechanic is a construction worker who specializes in roof construction. Roofers concentrate on the application of materials that waterproof and/or weatherproof buildings, designed material—as a substrate for the roofing materials to be installed on, the raftersbeams, and trusses are the frame or skeleton for the roof to be built upon. Roofers must be able to work, have good motor skills and possess general carpentry skills.

 


In Australia this type of carpenter is called a roof carpenter and the term roofer refers to someone who installs the roofcladding (tiles, tin, etc.).[citation needed]

In the United States and Canada, they're often referred to as Roofing Contractors.[1] The most common roofing material in the USA is asphalt shingles.[2] In the past, 3-tab shingles were used; nowadays, "architectural" or "dimensional" shingles are becoming very popular.[3]

Depending on the region, other commonly applied roofing materials installed by roofers include concrete tiles, clay tiles, natural or synthetic slate, single-ply (Primarily EPDM or Rubber, PVC, or TPO), rubber shingles (made from recycled tires), glass, metal panels or shingles, wood shakes or shingles, liquid-applied, hot asphalt/rubber, foam, thatch, solar tiles, and specialty roofs like Duro-Last. "Living roof" systems, or rooftop landscapes, have become increasingly common in recent years in both residential and commercial applications.[4][5]

In the United States, regulation of the roofing trade is left up to individual states. In California, for example, the California Contractors State License Board licenses and monitors roofing contractors.[6] Unlicensed contracting of projects worth over a set threshold may result in stiff fines or even time in prison.[7]

The United Kingdom has no legislation in place that requires a roofer to have a license to trade, although some do belong to recognized trade organizations.[citation needed]

Types of roofers[edit]

Roofers using fall arrest equipment

There are 4 main types of roofers: shinglers, who primarily install shingles, shakes, tiles, and other nail-on products on roofs with 5:12 pitches or above; metal roofers, who focus on metal panels; single-ply or "flat" roofers, who focus on roofs such as single-ply or foam roofs; and "hot" roofers, who work using tar-based products. It is not uncommon, however, for companies to have their roofers to multiple styles of roofing, and certain manufactures will only allow specifically selected installers, thus making these 4 types limiting.

Roofing material is the outermost layer on the roof of a building, sometimes self-supporting, but generally supported by an underlying structure. A building's roofing material provides shelter from the natural elements. The outer layer of a roof shows great variation dependent upon availability of material, and the nature of the supporting structure. Those types of roofing material which are commercially available range from natural products such as thatch and slate to commercially produced products such as tiles and polycarbonate sheeting. Roofing materials may be placed on top of a secondary water-resistant material called underlayment.Roofing is an Industry where you work on roofs. This Industry is a high risk industry due to the injuries that you can sustain in this job environment. Roofing is focus on the upper layer of a house or building. Roofing on a house is considered residential and building are commercial. Roofing on a government building you get paid pavilion wage.

Chesapeake is an independent city located in the U.S. commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 222,209,[3] in 2013, the population was estimated to be 232,977,[4] making it the third-most populous city in Virginia.

Chesapeake is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA. One of the cities in the South Hampton Roads, Chesapeake was organized in 1963 by voter referendums approving the political consolidation of the city of South Norfolk with the remnants of the former Norfolk County, which dated to 1691. (Much of the territory of the county had been annexed by other cities.) Chesapeake is the second-largest city by land area in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Chesapeake is a diverse city in which a few urban areas are located; it also has many square miles of protected farmland, forests, and wetlands, including a substantial portion of the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Extending from the rural border with North Carolina to the harbor area of Hampton Roads adjacent to the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach, Chesapeake is located on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. It has miles of waterfront industrial, commercial and residential property.

In 2011, Chesapeake was named the 21st best city in America by Bloomberg Businessweek.

In 1963, the new independent city of Chesapeake was created when the former independent city of South Norfolk consolidated with Norfolk County. The consolidation was approved and the new name selected by the voters of each community by referendum, and authorized by the Virginia General Assembly.

Formed in 1691 in the Virginia Colony, Norfolk County had originally included essentially all the area which became the towns and later cities of NorfolkPortsmouth, and South Norfolk. Its area was reduced after 1871 as these cities added territory through annexations. Becoming an independent city was a method for the former county to stabilize borders with neighbors, as cities could not annex territory from each other.

The relatively small city of South Norfolk had become anincorporated town within Norfolk County in 1919, and became an independent city in 1922. Its residents wanted to make a change to put their jurisdiction on a more equal footing in other aspects with the much larger cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, by the late 1950s, although immune from annexation by the bigger cities, South Norfolk was close to losing all the county land adjoining it to the city of Norfolk in another annexation suit.

The consolidation that resulted in the city of Chesapeake was part of a wave of changes in the structure of local government in southeastern Virginia which took place between 1952 and 1975.

The Chesapeake region was among the first areas settled in the state's colonial era, when settlement started from the coast. Along Chesapeake's segment of theIntracoastal Waterway, where the Great Bridge locks marks the transition between the Southern Branch Elizabeth River and the Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal, lies the site of the Battle of Great Bridge. Fought on December 9, 1775, in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, the battle resulted in the removal ofLord Dunmore and all vestiges of English Government from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia.

Photograph of Lake Drummond,Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife RefugeVirginia

Until the late 1980s and early 1990s, much of Chesapeake was either suburban or rural, serving as a bedroom communityof the adjacent cities of Norfolk and Virginia Beach with residents commuting to these locations. Beginning in the late 1980s and accelerating in the 1990s, however, Chesapeake saw significant growth, attracting numerous and significant industries and businesses of its own. This explosive growth quickly led to strains on the municipal infrastructure, ranging from intrusion of saltwater into the city's water supply to congested roads and schools.

Chesapeake made national headlines in 2003 when, under a court-ordered change of venue, the community hosted the first trial of alleged Beltway sniper Lee Boyd Malvo for shootings in 2002. A jury convicted him of murder but spared him a potential death sentence; it chose a sentence of "life in prison without parole" for the young man, who was 17 years old at the time of the crime spree. A jury in neighboring Virginia Beach convicted his older partner John Allen Muhammad and sentenced him to death for another of the attacks

Chesapeake is located at 36°46′2″N 76°17′14″W (36.767398, -76.287405).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 351 square miles (910 km2), of which 341 square miles (880 km2) is land and 10 square miles (26 km2) (2.9%) is water.[6]

The northeastern part of the Great Dismal Swamp is located in Chesapeake.

 

Norfolk (/ˈnɔːrfᵿk/ nor-fəklocal /ˈnɒfʊk/ nof-uuk) is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia,United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 242,803;[3] in 2015, the population was estimated to be 247,189[4] making it the second-most populous city in Virginia, behind neighboring Virginia Beach.

Norfolk is located at the core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, named for the large natural harborof the same name located at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. It is one of nine cities and seven counties that constitute the Hampton Roads metro area, officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA. The city is bordered to the west by the Elizabeth River and to the north by the Chesapeake Bay. It also shares land borders with the independent cities of Chesapeake to its south and Virginia Beachto its east. One of the oldest of the cities in Hampton Roads, Norfolk is considered to be the historic, urban, financial, and cultural center of the region.

The city has a long history as a strategic military and transportation point. The largest Navy base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk, is located in Norfolk along with one of NATO's two Strategic Command headquarters. The city also has the corporate headquarters of Norfolk Southern Railway, one of North America's principal Class I railroads, and Maersk Line, Limited, which manages the world's largest fleet ofUS-flag vessels. As the city is bordered by multiple bodies of water, Norfolk has many miles of riverfront and bayfront property, including beaches on the Chesapeake Bay. It is linked to its neighbors by an extensive network of Interstate highwaysbridgestunnels, and three bridge-tunnel complexes—the only bridge-tunnels in the United States.

Colonial years[edit]

In 1619, the Governor for the Virginia ColonySir George Yeardley incorporated four jurisdictions, termedcitties, for the developed portion of the colony. These formed the basis for colonial representative government in the newly minted House of Burgesses. What would become Norfolk was put under theElizabeth Cittie incorporation.

In 1634 King Charles I reorganized the colony into a system of shires. The former Elizabeth Cittie becameElizabeth City Shire. After persuading 105 people to settle in the colony, Adam Thoroughgood (who had immigrated to Virginia in 1622 from King's LynnNorfolkEngland) was granted a large land holding, through the headrights system, along the Lynnhaven River in 1636.

When the South Hampton Roads portion of the shire was separated, Thoroughgood suggested the name of his birthplace for the newly formed New Norfolk County. One year later, it was split into two counties,Upper Norfolk and Lower Norfolk (the latter is incorporated within present-day City of Norfolk), chiefly on Thoroughgood’s recommendation.[5] This area of Virginia became known as the place of entrepreneurs, including men of the Virginia Company of London.

Norfolk developed in the late 17th century as a "Half Moone" fort was constructed and 50 acres (200,000 m2) were acquired from local natives of the Powhatan Confederacy in exchange for 10,000 pounds of tobacco. The House of Burgesses established the "Towne of Lower Norfolk County" in 1680.[6][7]In 1691, a final county subdivision took place when Lower Norfolk County split to form Norfolk County(included in present-day cities of Norfolk, Chesapeake, and parts of Portsmouth) and Princess Anne County (present-day City of Virginia Beach).

Norfolk was incorporated in 1705. In 1730, a tobacco inspection site was located here. According to the Tobacco Inspection Act the inspection was "At Norfolk Town, upon the fort land, in the County of Norfolk; and Kemp's Landing, in Princess Anne, under one inspection."In 1736 George II granted it a royal charter as a borough.[8] By 1775, Norfolk developed into what contemporary observers argued was the most prosperous city in Virginia. It was an important port for exporting goods to the British Isles and beyond. In part because of its merchants' numerous trading ties with other parts of the British Empire, Norfolk served as a strong base of Loyalist support during the early part of the American Revolution. After fleeing the colonial capitol of WilliamsburgLord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, tried to reestablish control of the colony from Norfolk. Dunmore secured small victories at Norfolk but was forced into exile by the American rebels, commanded byColonel Woodford. His departure brought an end to more than 168 years of British colonial rule in Virginia.[9]

On New Year's Day, 1776, Lord Dunmore's fleet of three ships shelled the city of Norfolk for more than eight hours. The damage from the shells, and fires started by the British and spread by the patriots, destroyed over 800 buildings, almost two-thirds of the city. The patriots destroyed the remaining buildings for strategic reasons in February.[10] Only the walls of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church survived the bombardment and subsequent fires. A cannonball from the bombardment (fired by the Liverpool) remains within the wall of Saint Paul's.[11]

Nineteenth century[edit]

Where one of Lord Dunmore's shells landed during the American Revolutionary War

Joseph Jenkins Roberts, born and raised in Norfolk, became the first President ofLiberia.

Following recovery from the Revolutionary War's burning, Norfolk and her citizens struggled to rebuild. In 1804, another serious fire along the city’s waterfront destroyed some 300 buildings and the city suffered a serious economic setback. During the 1820s, agrarian communities across the American South suffered a prolonged recession, which caused many families to migrate to other areas. Many moved west into the Piedmont, or further into Kentucky and Tennessee. Such migration also followed the exhaustion of soil due to tobacco cultivation in the Tidewater, where it had been the primary commodity crop for generations.

Virginia made some attempts to phase out slavery, and manumissions had increased in the first two decades after the war. Thomas Jefferson Randolph gained passage of an 1832 resolution for gradual abolition in the state, but by that time, increased demand from development in the Deep South created a large internal market for slavery. Invention of the cotton gin in the late 18th century had enabled the profitable cultivation of short-staple cotton in the uplands, which was widely used.

The American Colonization Society proposed to "repatriate" free blacks and freed slaves to Africa by establishing the new colony of Liberia and paying for transportation. But most African Americans wanted to stay in their birthplace of the United States and achieve freedom and rights. For a period, many emigrants to Liberia from Virginia and North Carolina embarked from the port of Norfolk.Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a free person of color native to Norfolk, emigrated via the ACS and later was elected as the first president of Liberia, establishing a powerful family.[12]

On June 7, 1855, the 183-ft. vessel Benjamin Franklin put into Hampton Roads for repairs. She had just sailed from the West Indieswhere there had been an outbreak of yellow fever. The port health officer ordered the ship quarantined. After eleven days a second inspection found no issues, so she was allowed to dock. A few days later, the first cases of yellow fever were discovered in Norfolk, and a machinist died from the disease on July 8. By August several people were dying per day, and a third of the city population had fled in the hopes of escaping the epidemic. No one understood how the disease was transmitted. With both Norfolk and Portsmouth being infected, New York banned all traffic from those sites. Neighboring cities also banned residents from Norfolk. The epidemic spread through the city via mosquitoes and poor sanitation, affecting every family and causing widespread panic. The number of infected reached 5,000 in September, and by the second week 1,500 had died in Norfolk and Portsmouth. As the weather cooled, the outbreak began to wane, leaving a final tally of about 3,200 dead.[13] It took the city some time to recover.

In early 1861, Norfolk voters instructed their delegate to vote for secession. Virginia voted to secede from the Union. In the spring of 1862, the Battle of Hampton Roads took place off the northwest shore of the city's Sewell's Point Peninsula, marking the first fight between two ironclads, the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia. The battle ended in a stalemate, but changed the course of naval warfare; from then on, warships were fortified with metal.[14]

In May 1862, Norfolk Mayor William Lamb surrendered the city to Union General John E. Wool and his forces. They held the city under martial law for the duration of the Civil War. Thousands of slaves from the region escaped to Union lines to gain freedom; they quickly set up schools in Norfolk to start learning to read and write, years before the end of the war.[15]

20th century to present[edit]

1907 brought both the Virginian Railway and the Jamestown Exposition to Sewell's Point. The large Naval Review at the Exposition demonstrated the peninsula's favorable location and laid the groundwork for the world's largest naval base. Southern Democrats in Congress gained its location here. Commemorating the 300th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, the exposition featured many prominent officials, including President Theodore Rooseveltmembers of Congress, anddiplomats from 21 countries. By 1917, as the US built up to enter World War I, the Naval Air Station Hampton Roads had been constructed on the former exposition grounds.[16]

In the first half of the 20th century, the city of Norfolk expanded its borders through annexation. In 1906, the city annexed the incorporated town of Berkley, making the city cross the Elizabeth River.[17] In 1923, the city expanded to include Sewell's Point, Willoughby Spit, the town of Campostella, and the Ocean View area. The city included the Navy Base and miles of beach property fronting on Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay.[18] After a smaller annexation in 1959, and a 1988 land swap with Virginia Beach, the city assumed its current boundaries.[19]

With the dawn of the Interstate Highway System following World War II, new highways were constructed in the region. A series of bridges and tunnels, constructed during fifteen years, linked Norfolk with the PeninsulaPortsmouth, and Virginia Beach. In 1952, the Downtown Tunnel opened to connect Norfolk with the city of Portsmouth. The highways also stimulated development of new housing in suburbs, leading to the population spreading out. Additional bridges and tunnels included the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel in 1957,[20] the Midtown Tunnel in 1962,[21] and the Virginia Beach-Norfolk Expressway (Interstate 264 and State Route 44) in 1967.[22] In 1991, the new Downtown Tunnel/Berkley Bridge complex opened a new system of multiple lanes of highway and interchanges connecting Downtown Norfolk and Interstate 464 with the Downtown Tunnel tubes.[23]

In 1954 the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregated public schools were unconstitutional, as the public system was supported by all taxpayers. It ordered integration, but Virginia pursued a policy of "massive resistance". (At this time, most black citizens were still disfranchised under the state's turn-of-the-century constitution and discriminatory practices related to voter registration and elections.) The Virginia General Assembly prohibited state funding for integrated public schools.

In 1958, United States district courts in Virginia ordered schools to open for the first time on a racially integrated basis. In response, Governor James Lindsay Almond, Jr. ordered the schools closed. The Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals declared the state law to be in conflict with the state constitution and ordered all public schools to be funded, whether integrated or not. About 10 days later, Almond capitulated and asked the General Assembly to rescind several "massive resistance" laws.[24] In September 1959, 17 black children entered six previously segregated Norfolk public schools. Virginian-Pilot editor Lenoir Chamberseditorialized against massive resistance and earned the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing.[25]

With new suburban developments beckoning, many white middle-class residents moved out of the city along new highway routes, and Norfolk's population fell, a pattern repeated in numerous cities in the postwar era independently of segregation issues. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the advent of newer suburban shopping destinations along with freeways spelled demise for the fortunes of downtown's Granby Street commercial corridor, located just a few blocks inland from the waterfront. The opening of malls and large shopping centers drew off retail business from Granby Street.[26]

Norfolk's city leaders began a long push to revive its urban core. While Granby Street underwent decline, Norfolk city leaders focused on the waterfront and its collection of decaying piers and warehouses. Many obsolete shipping and warehousing facilities were demolished. In their place, planners created a new boulevard, Waterside Drive, along which many of the high-rise buildings in Norfolk's skyline have been erected. In 1983 the city and The Rouse Company developed theWaterside festival marketplace to attract people back to the waterfront and catalyze further downtown redevelopment.[27] Other facilities opened in the ensuing years, including the Harbor Park baseball stadium, home of the Norfolk Tides Triple-A minor league baseball team. In 1995, the park was named the finest facility in minor league baseball by Baseball America.[28] Norfolk's efforts to revitalize its downtown have attracted acclaim from economic development and urban planning circles throughout the country. Downtown's rising fortunes helped to expand the city's revenues and allowed the city to direct attention to other neighborhoods.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 96 square miles (250 km2), of which 54 square miles (140 km2) is land and 42 square miles (110 km2) (43.9%) is water.[30] Norfolk is located at 36°55′N 76°12′W (36.8857° N, 76.2599° W)

The city is located at the southeastern corner of Virginia at the junction of the Elizabeth River and Chesapeake Bay. The Hampton Roads Metropolitan Statistical Area (officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA) is the37th largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,716,624 in 2014. The area includes the Virginia cities of Norfolk, Virginia BeachChesapeakeHamptonNewport NewsPoquosonPortsmouthSuffolkWilliamsburg, and the counties of GloucesterIsle of WightJames CityMathews, and York, as well as the North Carolina counties of Currituck and Gates. The city of Norfolk is recognized as the central business district, while the Virginia Beach oceanside resort district and Williamsburgare primarily centers of tourism. Virginia Beach is the most populated city within the MSA though it functions more as a suburb. Additionally, Norfolk is part of the Virginia Beach-Norfolk, VA-NC Combined Statistical Area, which includes the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA, the Elizabeth City, North Carolina Micropolitan Statistical Area, and the Kill Devil Hills, NCMicropolitan Statistical Area. The CSA is the 32nd largest in the nation with a 2013 estimated population of 1,810,266.

In addition to extensive riverfront property, Norfolk has miles of bayfront resort property and beaches in the Willoughby Spit andOcean View communities.

Being low-lying and largely surrounded by water, Norfolk is particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels. In addition, the land on which it is built is slowly subsiding. Some areas already flood regularly at high tide, and the city commissioned a study in 2012 to investigate how to address the issue in the future: it reported the cost of dealing with a sea-level rise of one foot would be around one billion dollars. Since then, in 2013, scientists at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science have estimated that if current trends hold, the sea in Norfolk will rise by 5 1/2 feet or more by the end of this century

When Norfolk was first settled, homes were made of wood and frame construction, similar to most medieval English-style homes. These homes had wide chimneys and thatch roofs. Some decades after the town was first laid out in 1682, the Georgian architectural style, which was popular in the South at the time, was used. Brick was considered more substantial construction; patterns were made by brick laid and Flemish bond. This style evolved to include projecting center pavilions, Palladian windows, balustraded roof decks, and two-storyporticoes. By 1740, homes, warehouses, stores, workshops, and taverns began to dot Norfolk's streets.

Norfolk was burned down during the Revolutionary War. After the Revolution, Norfolk was rebuilt in Federal style, based on Roman ideals. Federal-style homes kept Georgian symmetry, though they had more refined decorations to look like New World homes. Federal homes had features such as narrow sidelights with an embracing fanlight around the doorway, giant porticoes, gable or flat roofs, and projecting bays on exterior walls. Rooms were oval, elliptical or octagonal. Few of these federal rowhouses remain standing today. A majority of buildings were made of wood and had simple construction.

In the early 19th century, Neoclassical architectural elements began to appear in the federal style row homes, such as iconic columns in the porticoes and classic motifs over doorways and windows. Many Federal-style row houses were modernized by placing a Greek-style porch at the front. Greek and Roman elements were integrated into public buildings such as the old City Hall, the old Norfolk Academy, and the Customs House.

Taylor-Whittle House (c. 1790), now occupied by the Junior League of Norfolk-Virginia Beach and the Norfolk Historical Society[32]

Greek-style homes gave way to Gothic Revival in the 1830s, which emphasized pointed arches, steep gable roofs, towers and tracer-lead windows. The Freemason Baptist Church and St. Mary's Catholic Church are examples of Gothic Revival. Italianateelements emerged in the 1840s including cupolasverandas, ornamental brickwork, or corner quoins. Norfolk still had simple wooden structures among its more ornate buildings.

High-rise buildings were first built in the late 19th century when structures such as the current Commodore Maury Hotel and the Royster Building were constructed to form the initial Norfolk skyline. Past styles were revived during the early years of the 20th century. Bungalows and apartment buildings became popular for those living in the city.

As the Great Depression wore on, Art Deco emerged as a popular building style, as evidenced by the Post Office building downtown. Art Deco consisted of streamlined concrete faced appearance with smooth stone or metal, with terracotta, and trimming consisting of glass and colored tiles.

 

Since Norfolk serves as the commercial and cultural center for the unusual geographical region of Hampton Roads (and in its political structure of independent cities), it can be difficult to separate the economic characteristics of Norfolk from that of the region as a whole.

The waterways which almost completely surround the Hampton Roads region play an important part in the local economy. As a strategic location at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, its protected deep-water channels serve as a major trade artery for the import and export of goods from across the Mid-AtlanticMid-West, and internationally.[48]

In addition to commercial activities, Hampton Roads is a major military center, particularly for the United States Navy, and Norfolk serves as the home for Naval Station Norfolk, the world's largest naval installation. Located on Sewell's Point Peninsula, in the northwest corner of the city, the station is the headquarters of the United States Fleet Forces Command(formerly known as the Atlantic Fleet), which compromises over 62,000 active duty personnel, 75 ships, and 132 aircraft. The base also serves as the headquarters to NATO's Allied Command Transformation.[49]

The region also plays an important role in defense contracting, with particular emphasis in the shipbuilding and ship repair businesses for the city of Norfolk. Major private shipyards located in Norfolk or the Hampton Roads area include: Huntington Ingalls Industries (formerly Northrop Grumman Newport News) in Newport News, BAE Systems Norfolk Ship RepairGeneral Dynamics NASSCO Norfolk, and Colonna's Shipyard Inc., while the US Navy's Norfolk Naval Shipyard is just across the Downtown Tunnel in Portsmouth. Most contracts fulfilled by these shipyards are issued by the Navy, though some private commercial repair also takes place. Over 35% of Gross Regional Product (which includes the entire Norfolk-Newport News-Virginia Beach MSA), is attributable to defense spending, and that 75% of all regional growth since 2001 is attributable to increases in defense spending.[50]

A view of Norfolk from Portsmouth

After the military, the second largest and most important industry for Hampton Roads and Norfolk based on economic impact are the region's cargo ports. Headquartered in Norfolk, the Virginia Port Authority (VPA) is a Commonwealth of Virginiaowned-entity that, in turn, owns and operates three major port facilities in Hampton Roads for break-bulk and container type cargo. In Norfolk, Norfolk International Terminals (NIT) represents one of those three facilities and is home to the world's largest and fastest container cranes.[51] Together, the three terminals of the VPA handled a total of over 2 million TEUs and 475,000 tons of breakbulk cargo in 2006, making it the second busiest port on the east coast of North America by total cargo volume after the Port of New York and New Jersey.[52]

In addition to NIT, Norfolk is home to Lambert's Point Docks, the largest coal trans-shipment point in the Northern Hemisphere, with annual throughput of approximately 48 million tons.[53] Bituminous coal is primarily sourced from the Appalachian mountains in western Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky. The coal is loaded onto trains and sent to the port where it is unloaded onto large breakbulk cargo ships and destined for New England, Europe, and Asia.

Between 1925 and 2007, Ford Motor Company operated Norfolk Assembly, a manufacturing plant located on the Elizabeth River that had produced the Model T, sedans and station wagons before building F-150 pick-up trucks.[54] Before it closed, the plant employed more than 2,600 people at the 2,800,000-square-foot (260,000 m2) facility.[54][54]

Dominion Square, headquarters ofDominion Enterprises

Most major shipping lines have a permanent presence in the region with some combination of sales, distribution, and/or logistical offices, many of which are located in Norfolk. In addition, many of the largest international shipping companies have chosen Norfolk as their North American headquarters. These companies are either located at the Norfolk World Trade Center building or have constructed buildings in the Lake Wright Executive Center office park. The French firm CMA CGM, the Israeli firm Zim Integrated Shipping Services, and Maersk Line Limited, a subsidiary of the world's largest shipping line,A. P. Moller-Maersk Group, have their North American headquarters in Norfolk.[55][56][57] Major companies headquartered in Norfolk include Norfolk Southern,[58] Landmark Communications,[59] Dominion Enterprises,[60] FHC Health Systems (parent company of ValueOptions),[61] Portfolio Recovery Associates,[62] and BlackHawk Products Group.[63]

Nauticus and USS Wisconsin

Though Virginia Beach and Williamsburg have traditionally been the centers of tourism for the region, the rebirth of downtown Norfolk and the construction of a cruise ship pier at the foot of Nauticus in downtown has driven tourism to become an increasingly important part of the city's economy. The number of cruise ship passengers who visited Norfolk increased from 50,000 in 2003, to 107,000 in 2004 and 2005. Also in April 2007, the city completed construction on a $36 million state-of-the-art cruise ship terminal alongside the pier.[64] Partly due to this construction, passenger counts dropped to 70,000 in 2006, but is expected to rebound to 90,000 in 2007, and higher in later years. Unlike most cruise ship terminals which are located in industrial areas, the downtown location of Norfolk's terminal has received favorable reviews from both tourists and the cruise lines who enjoy its proximity to the city's hotels, restaurants, shopping, and cultural amenities.[65]

Hampton Roads is home to four Fortune 500 companies. Representing the food industry, transportation, retail and shipbuilding, these four companies are located inSmithfield, Norfolk, Chesapeake and Newport News.

 

Virginia Beach is an independent city located in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 437,994.[3] In 2015, the population was estimated to be 452,745.[4] Although mostly suburban in character, it is the most populous city in Virginia and the 41st most populous city in the nation.[5]

Located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia Beach is included in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. This area, known as "America's First Region", also includes the independent cities ofChesapeakeHamptonNewport NewsNorfolkPortsmouth, and Suffolk, as well as other smaller cities, counties, and towns of Hampton Roads.

Virginia Beach is a resort city with miles of beaches and hundreds of hotels, motels, and restaurants along itsoceanfront. Every year the city hosts the East Coast Surfing Championships as well as the North American Sand Soccer Championship, a beach soccer tournament. It is also home to several state parks, several long-protected beach areas, three military bases, a number of large corporations, two universities, International headquarters and site of the television broadcast studios for Pat Robertson's Christian Broadcasting Network(CBN), Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment, and numerous historic sites. Near the point where the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean meet, Cape Henry was the site of the first landing of the English colonists, who eventually settled in Jamestown, on April 26, 1607.

The city is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as having the longest pleasure beach in the world. It is located at the southern end of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, the longest bridge-tunnel complex in the world.

 

The Chesepian were the historic indigenous people of the area now known as Tidewater in Virginia at the time of European encounter. Little is known about them[7] but archeological evidence suggests they may have been related to the Carolina Algonquian, or Pamlico people. They would have spoken one of the Algonquian languages. These were common among the numerous tribes of the coastal area, who made up the loosePowhatan Confederacy, numbering in the tens of thousands in population. The Chesepian occupied an area which is now defined as the independent cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth, Chesapeake, and Virginia Beach.[8]

Cape Henry from the air, facing ESE

In 1607, after a voyage of 144 days, three ships headed by Captain Christopher Newport, and carrying 105 men and boys, made their first landfall in the New World on the mainland, where the southern mouth of the Chesapeake Bay meets the Atlantic Ocean. They named it Cape Henry, after Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King James I of England. These English colonists of the Virginia Company of London moved on from this area, as they were under orders to seek a site further inland, which would be more sheltered from ships of competing European countries. They created their first permanent settlement on the north side of theJames River at Jamestown.[9]

Adam Thoroughgood (1604–1640) of King's LynnNorfolk, England is one of the earliest Englishmen to settle in this area, which was developed as Virginia Beach. At the age of 18, he had contracted as an indentured servant to pay for passage to the Virginia Colony in the hopes of bettering his life. He earned his freedom after several years and became a leading citizen of the area. In 1629, he was elected to the House of Burgesses for Elizabeth Cittie [sic], one of four "citties" (or incorporations) which were subdivided areas established in 1619.[10]

In 1634, the Colony was divided into the original eight shires of Virginia, soon renamed ascounties. Thoroughgood is credited with using the name of his home in England when helping name "New Norfolk County" in 1637. The following year, New Norfolk County was split into Upper Norfolk County (soon renamed Nansemond County) and Lower Norfolk County. Thoroughgood resided after 1634 was along the Lynnhaven River, named for his home in England.

Lower Norfolk County was large when first organized, defined as from the Atlantic Ocean west past the Elizabeth River, encompassing the entire area now within the modern cities of Portsmouth, Norfolk, Chesapeake, and Virginia Beach.[10] It attracted many entrepreneurs, including William Moseley with his family in 1648. Belonging to the Merchant Adventurers Guild of London, he immigrated from Rotterdam of the Netherlands, where he had been in the international trade. He settled on land on the north side of the Elizabeth River (Virginia), east of what developed as Norfolk.

Following increased settlement, in 1691 Lower Norfolk County was divided to form Norfolk and Princess Anne counties. Princess Anne, the easternmost county in South Hampton Roads, extended from Cape Henry at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, south to what became the border of the North Carolina colony. It included all of the area fronting the Atlantic Ocean. Princess Anne County was known as a jurisdiction from 1691 to 1963, over 250 years.[11]

Princess Anne County (1691–1963), now extinct, with Virginia Beach from 1895 Virginia map

In the early centuries, this area was rural and developed for plantation agriculture. In the late 19th century, the small resort area of Virginia Beach developed in Princess Anne County after the 1883 arrival of rail service to the coast. The Virginia Beach Hotel was opened and operated by the Norfolk and Virginia Beach Railroad and Improvement Company at the oceanfront, near the tiny community of Seatack. The hotel was foreclosed and the railroad reorganized in 1887. The hotel was upgraded and reopened in 1888 as the Princess Anne Hotel.[12]

In 1891, guests at the new hotel watched the wreck and rescue efforts of the United States Life-Saving Service for the Norwegian bark Dictator. The ship's figurehead, which washed up on the beach several days later, was erected as a monument to the victims and rescuers. It stood along the oceanfront for more than 50 years. In the 21st century, it inspired the pair of matching Norwegian Lady Monuments, sculpted by Ørnulf Bast and installed in Virginia Beach and Moss, Norway.[13]

The resort initially depended on railroad and electric trolley service. The completion of Virginia Beach Boulevard in 1922, which extended from Norfolk to the oceanfront, opened the route for automobilesbuses, and trucks. The passenger rail service to the oceanfront was eventually discontinued as traffic increased by vehicle. The growing resort of Virginia Beach became anincorporated town in 1906. Over the next 45 years, Virginia Beach continued to grow in popularity as a seasonal vacation spot. The casinos were replaced by amusement parks and family-oriented attractions. In 1927 The Cavalier Hotel opened and became a popular vacation spot.

Virginia Beach gained status as an independent city in 1952, although ties remained between it and Princess Anne County. In 1963, after voters in the two jurisdictions passed a supporting referendum, and with the approval of the Virginia General Assembly, the two political subdivisions were consolidated as a new, much larger independent city, retaining the better-known name of the Virginia Beach resort.[14]

The Alan B. Shepard Civic Center ("The Dome"), a significant building in the city's history,[why?] was constructed in 1958,[15] and was dedicated to the career of former Virginia Beach resident and astronaut Alan Shepard.[16] As the area changed, the Dome was frequently used as a bingo hall. The building was razed in 1994[15] to make room for a municipal parking lot and potential future development.

Virginia Beach Town Center

Real estate, defense, and tourism are major sectors of the Virginia Beach economy. Local public and private groups have maintained a vested interest in real-estate redevelopment, resulting in a number of joint public-private projects, such as commercial parks. Examples of the public-private development include the Virginia Beach Convention Center, the Oceanfront Hilton Hotel, and the Virginia Beach Town Center. The City assisted in financing the project through the use of tax increment financing: creating special tax districts and constructing associated street and infrastructure to support the developments. The Town Center opened in 2003, with related construction continuing. The Convention Center opened in 2005.[17][18]

The city has begun to run out of clear land available for new construction north of the Green Line, an urban growth boundarydividing the urban northern and rural southern sections of the city.[19] Infill and development of residential neighborhoods has placed a number of operating constraints on Naval Air Station Oceana, a major fighter jet base for the U.S. Navy. While the airbase enjoys wide support from Virginia Beach at large, the Pentagon Base Realignment and Closure commission has proposed closure of Oceana within the next decade.[20]

Geography and climate[edit]

The Chesapeake Bay shore

Virginia Beach is located at 36.8506°N 75.9779°WCoordinates36.8506°N 75.9779°W.[21]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 497 square miles (1,290 km2), of which 249 square miles (640 km2) is land and 248 square miles (640 km2) (49.9%) is water.[21] It is the largest city in Virginia by total area and third-largest city land area. The average elevation is 12 feet (3.7 m) above sea level. A major portion of the city drains to the Chesapeake Bay by way of the Lynnhaven River and its tributaries.

The city is located at the southeastern corner of Virginia in the Hampton Roads area bordering the Atlantic Ocean. The Hampton Roads Metropolitan Statistical Area (officially known as the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA) is the 37th largest in the United States, with a total population of 1,707,639. The area includes the Virginia cities of Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Poquoson, Portsmouth, Suffolk, Williamsburg, and the counties ofGloucesterIsle of WightJames CityMathewsSurry, and York, as well as the North Carolina county of Currituck. While Virginia Beach is the most populated city within the MSA, it actually currently functions more as a suburb. The city of Norfolk is recognized as the central business district, while the Virginia Beach oceanside resort district and Williamsburg are primarily centers of tourism.

Portsmouth is an independent city located in the U.S. commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 95,535.[3] It is part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area.

The Norfolk Naval Shipyard, often called the Norfolk Navy Yard, is a historic and active U.S. Navy facility that is actually located in Portsmouth rather than Norfolk; the original name "Gosport" was changed to "Norfolk" to reflect its location in Norfolk County, VA. The shipyard upgrades, remodels, and repairs ships of the US Navy and is one of the few facilities in the world with the capability to dry dock an aircraft carrier.

Directly opposite Norfolk, the city of Portsmouth also has miles of waterfront land on the Elizabeth River as part of the harbor of Hampton Roads. There is a ferry boat that takes riders back and forth across the water between Downtown Norfolk and Olde Towne Portsmouth.

 

Va Beach
Tidewater
Hampton Roads
Suffolk
Norfolk
Virginia Beach
Portsmouth
Chesapeake
Hampton
Newport News
Richmond
James City
Williamsburg
Isle of Wight
Lanexa
Poquson
Petersburg
Colonial Heights
Virginia
Eastern Shore
Hayes
Gloucester
Cape Charles
Franklin
Courtland
Tappahannock
Essex
Emporia
Midlothian
Hopewell
Denbigh
Chincoteague
Wakefield
Yorktown
Windsor
Emporia
Smithfield
Carrollton
Grafton
Seaford
Colonial Heights
Gloucester Point
Tabb
Waverly
Zuni
Carrsville
Rescue
Chesterfield
Prince George
Jamestown
Surry
Duck
Corolla
Grandy
Aydlett
Camden
Barco
Jarvisburg
Wanchese
Maple
Shiloh
Coinjock
Shawboro
Outer Banks
Kill Devil Hills
Murfreesboro
Hertford
Kitty Hawk
Knotts Island
Manteo
Moyock
South Mills
Elizabeth City
Currituck
Nags Head
Hatteras
Ocracoke

 

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